Fractures, Bruises, Avulsions, Sprains & Strains

A Fracture can be very serious. It’s important to understand Fractures and understand what to do according to the severity of the injury. If there are any signs of a concussion, broken bones at the neck, head or back, deformed joints, no pulse, heavy bleeding, any abnormalities of the broken bone such as: a piercing of the skin or if the bone is irregularly fixed, call 911 immediately and perform CPR, if needed.

Treatment: Make sure to stop the bleeding by applying pressure to the Fracture and wrapping it if necessary. Apply a splint to the Fractured area. If the patient isn't moving do not try and move the patient yourself. If needed, apply a cold cloth or ice to the fracture.

Remember, if the patient appears to be light-headed or on the verge of fainting lift the legs slightly higher than the victim’s heart to raise the blood pressure.

Dental Avulsion — For lack of skill and required training to re-implant an avulsed tooth it may be beneficial to store the tooth in solution. Storing the tooth in solution prolongs the viability of dental cells. Such solution, which has shown efficacy: Hank's Balanced Salt Solution. Cell viability: 30-120 minutes.

Bruises are broken blood vessels that leak under the skin—dark spots caused by a blow, fall, etc…

Treatment: Make sure to elevate the injured area which will alleviate the pain. Also, apply an ice-pack or cold cloth. If needed, have the patient take a pain-reliever such as: Tylenol to reduce the pain and swelling. If the Bruise appeared on the head or if the bruise lasts longer than 2 weeks consider taking the patient to the hospital.

Sprains & Strains differ in where the injury takes place on the body. Sprains occur in any ligaments, such as: ankles, wrists, etc… Strains occur when a muscle/tendon is torn. Strains can occur in the back (hamstring) or thigh, etc…

Treatment: rest the Sprained/Strained area in a sling, crutch or flint. Make sure to place ice over the area to prevent swelling and limit application to 20 minutes unless the patient is irritated - limit 10 minutes. Make sure to apply a bandage to the joint or limb or use a brace, if possible. Make sure to raise the patient’s Sprained/Strained part 12 inches above the heart.