Pathogens, Viruses & Diseases

Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis A, B, C Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Other Disease Pathogens

Transmission: Cuts, abrasions, burns, needle sticks, punctures, rashes, bites and mucous membranes.

Fluids: Semen, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, vaginal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.
No-Risk Fluids: Vomit, nasal, sweat, tears, saliva, sputum, urine.
Risk Factors: Intravenous drug users, sexual contact, birth, hemodialysis patients, any contact with blood or body fluids.

Hepatitis: Causation through a virus/toxin, liver inflammation (swelling, soreness).

Hepatitis A: Not persistent in blood, minor form of Hepatitis, caused by RNA virus.

Symptom: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice.
Treatment: Vaccine

Hepatitis B: Persistent in blood, transmitted through indigestion of blood and/or body fluids, sexual contact and injection.

Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain.
Treatment: Vaccine, transplant

Hepatitis C: Persistent in blood, transmitted through contact of blood, sexual contact, drug use, contaminated needle stick about 1.8%.

Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain.
Treatment: No vaccine available

Difference between Acute and Chronic
Acute: First-time infected, 15-20% cleared without treatment.
Chronic: Second or more infected, 75-85% will carry virus long-term with 60-70% chronic liver disease, 1-5% death of complications.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Persistent in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, pre-ejaculation, breast milk, is a free particle virus and within cells, cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) spread through needles, mother-to-infant, sexual contact & drug users.

Symptoms: Fever, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, rash.
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
The final stage of HIV, caused by damaged immune system.

Symptoms: Sweating, fatigue, shortness of breath, dry coughing, chronic diarrhea, white lesions on tongue and in mouth, headache, and weight loss.
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.

HIV / AIDS in the US: 16.5 per 100,00 population

HIV / AIDS in the U.S. risk to Health Workers: Less than 100 Health Workers infected

Risk: Needle stick/cut 0.3%

OSHA Required Prevention:
  Engineering Controls
  Work Practices
  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  Universal Precautions
  Body Substance Isolation (BSI)

Engineering Controls
  Labeling of infectious materials (biohazard labeling)
  Cleaning faculties (eye, hands, showers, etc…)
  Containment of infectious materials (containers, refrigerators’, freezers, bags, etc…)
  Proper waste control (transportation, etc…)
  Reusable tools should be labeled in appropriate storage

Sharp with Engineered Sharps Injury Protections (SESIP)
  Retractable needles
  Retractable finger-prick lancet
  Needleless systems (needle guards, blunted needles, retractable scalpels, etc…)

Proper recapping of needles
  One-handed motion
  Mechanical device

Injury
  Document injury
  Testing—successions
  Safe sexual contact
  Therapy/Counseling
  Stop breastfeeding
  Immediate evaluation of presumed illnesses

Work Practices

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) disposure in appropriate places and thorough cleaning of hands before/during & after, usage of gloves and all reusable tools. Usage of sharp objects must be adequately disposed of and/or cleaned. Workstation and environment (must be cleaned regularly) with proper towels, tools, etc… for later use and disposal. Proper usage of tools to pick up contaminated objects and fluids.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Used for Prevention of: Bloodborne Pathogens and OPIM’s

Protecting: Head, torso, arms, hands, feet, etc…

All PPE should be properly disposed of after usage of such equipment in proper disposal units.

Equipment: gloves, aprons, gowns, face protectors, masks, safety eye glasses, coats, linen.

Bleach solutions usage:
For medical equipment 1:10
For work stations 1:100

Universal Precautions

All blood and other body fluids are to be considered infected besides: Vomit, nasal, sweat, tears, saliva, sputum, urine

Body Substance Isolation (BSI)

BSI practices are used to lessen the chances of transmissions of any diseases and/or infections—all fluids are to be suspected of infectious diseases. OSHA’s guidelines are to be followed by all persons dealing/working with Bloodborne Pathogens and other OPIM’s. These guidelines are for the protection of all workers and bystanders who come in contact with any Bloodborne Pathogens and OPIM’s.

For more information regarding OSHA's guidelines please visit www.osha.gov.

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