Pathogens, Viruses & Diseases

Bloodborne Pathogens:
Hepatitis A, B, C Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Other Disease Pathogens

Transmission: Cuts, abrasions, burns, needle sticks, punctures, rashes, bites and mucous membranes.

Fluids: Semen, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, vaginal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.
No-Risk Fluids: Vomit, nasal, sweat, tears, saliva, sputum, urine.
Risk Factors: Intravenous drug users, sexual contact, birth, hemodialysis patients, any contact with blood or body fluids.

Hepatitis: Causation through a virus/toxin, liver inflammation (swelling, soreness).

Hepatitis A: Not persistent in blood, minor form of Hepatitis, caused by RNA virus.

Symptom: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice.
Treatment: Vaccine

Hepatitis B: Persistent in blood, transmitted through indigestion of blood and/or body fluids, sexual contact and injection.

Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain.
Treatment: Vaccine, transplant

Hepatitis C: Persistent in blood, transmitted through contact of blood, sexual contact, drug use, contaminated needle stick about 1.8%.

Symptoms: Fatigue, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, joint pain.
Treatment: No vaccine available

Difference between Acute and Chronic
Acute: First-time infected, 15-20% cleared without treatment.
Chronic: Second or more infected, 75-85% will carry virus long-term with 60-70% chronic liver disease, 1-5% death of complications.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Persistent in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, pre-ejaculation, breast milk, is a free particle virus and within cells, cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) spread through needles, mother-to-infant, sexual contact & drug users.

Symptoms: Fever, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, rash.
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
The final stage of HIV, caused by damaged immune system.

Symptoms: Sweating, fatigue, shortness of breath, dry coughing, chronic diarrhea, white lesions on tongue and in mouth, headache, and weight loss.
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.

HIV / AIDS in the US: 16.5 per 100,00 population

HIV / AIDS in the U.S. risk to Health Workers: Less than 100 Health Workers infected

Risk: Needle stick/cut 0.3%