CPR – Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

C is for Circulation – Compressions

Chest Compressions Circulate the blood within the patient. It's important to place your hands correctly upon the patient’s chest when performing compressions.

To do so, find the point where the patient’s ribs meet (just below both halves) and interlock your fingers with both hands. Make sure you’re kneeling beside the patient’s shoulders (Do Not Lean on Patient). Once in position, lock your elbows and use your body’s weight to compress 2 inches upon the patient’s chest. Make sure to let the patient’s chest rise after each compression. Compressions on an infant are pressed just below the nipples.

Infant CPR - 2 Rescuers: One Rescuer should use two hands holding the infant facing up while positioning the fingers in the middle of the infant’s chest as the other rescuer uses a one-way valve—placing it over the infant’s mouth and nose. One rescuer will perform compressions while the other uses the rescue valve. You can also apply a ratio of 15:2 compressions to breathing.

Chest Compression Tempo: the correct tempo that should be performed matches the song “Staying Alive.” Make sure to push hard and fast to that song’s tempo.

Chest Compression Fraction: is the total percentage of resuscitation time when performed by the rescuer(s) during cardiac arrest. Whether intended or unintended interruptions (such as real-world delays) occur Chest Compression Fraction aims to minimize pauses in chest compressions. Chest Compression Fraction Goal: target of at least 60%

Remember, CPR should be administered until help arrives. 100-120 compressions should be performed per minute.

A is for Airway. Clear the Airway

Check for any obstructions, such as: tongue, foreign objects, vomit, swelling or food blocking the patient’s throat or windpipe (finger-swipe, if necessary).

Make sure the patient is on a solid/firm surface (on his/her backside). Next, kneel beside the patient’s neck/shoulders. Open the patient’s Airway by tilting the head back with the palm of 1 hand as the other hand gently lifts the chin. For no longer than 10 seconds, check for life: listen for any sounds, put your cheek beside the patient’s mouth to feel for breathing and look for any motions. Tasks can be performed simultaneously.

Chest Compressions should be performed on patient’s who are obese or pregnant.

B is for Breathing. Mouth-to-Mouth

Rescue Breathing is widely known to be performed mouth-to-mouth—it can also be performed mouth-to-nose, mouth-to-mask and mouth-to-stoma, but in rare cases.

Breathing tasks: While still performing the Airway technique pinch the patient’s nose shut. With a complete seal over the patient’s mouth, with your mouth, breathe into the patient until you see the chest inflate. If the chest does not inflate repeat the Airway technique. When performing the breathing technique make sure to give 2 breaths for 1 second each.

Once the breathing technique is applied you will continue the C-A-B’s.

CPR for Infants (Age Less Than 1 Year, Excluding Newborns)
   Witnessed Collapse: call 911 or have someone call
   Un-Witnessed Collapse: perform CPR (for 2 minutes), call 911 or have someone call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   Perform CPR - Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 1½ inches (4 cm) - 1/3 AP diameter of chest
   30:2 compressions over breaths (seal infant’s mouth and nose) - 2 Rescuers 15:2
   2 Rescuers: 2 thumbs compression
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Infant CPR

CPR for Children (Age 1 Year to Puberty)
   Witnessed Collapse: call 911 or have someone call
   Un-Witnessed Collapse: perform CPR (for 2 minutes), call 911 or have someone call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   Perform CPR - Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 2 inches (5 cm) - 1/3 AP diameter of chest
   30:2 compressions over breaths - 2 Rescuers 15:2
   2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Child CPR

CPR for Adults & Adolescents
   Check for life
   Before performing CPR call 911 or have someone else call
   Chest compressions - 100-120/min
   2 Rescuers: Perform tasks simultaneously
   Perform CPR – Circulate, Airway, Breathing (C-A-B’s)
   Compressions at about 2 inches (5 cm)
   1 or 2 rescuers - 30:2 compressions over breaths
   Use AED as soon as it's available

Click for Summary of Adult & Adolescent CPR

When to stop CPR
   When you’re too exhausted to continue
   If the patient’s ribs are broken, lung collapses, etc…
   If an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is accessible
   If Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrives

Click For Tip